Puncture resistant tires are typically used for training. They provide a more comfortable ride, durability and reduce the chances of getting a flat tire. The down side to this style of tire is they are typically heavier, takes more energy to ride and less aerodynamic. Essentially, they are a much slower tire. This style of tire is best to use for training rides or on rough roads that have lots of debris. If you are not comfortable changing a flat tire while out on the road this may be the best choice.
Rolling Resistance tires are typically used for race day. They require less energy to ride at the same effort and typically provide more aerodynamics. The downside is they are a little more prone to a flat tire than training tires. This style of tire is best used for races or smooth roads with little debris.
There are numerous tire sizes available on the market and your choice of tire size is widely based on the width of your rims. Current trend is a wider rim with the same size tire which creates a smoother and more aerodynamic ride.
Tire pressure has been a big debate lately. Tires have a recommended tire pressure on the side of the tire. There was a time that I would pump my tires up to 110 PSI for every ride regardless of the conditions. Today, I change my pressure based on which wheels/tires I am riding and the conditions outside. There are many factors that should dictate the ideal tire pressure for you such as weather, rider weight, and tire width. The narrower the tire, the more pressure. It should also be noted that the higher the pressure the less likely to get a puncture and the tires will have less rolling resistance. However, you will feel every bump on the road. The wider the tire the less pressure and the more surface of the tire will be on the road surface providing a smoother ride along with the benefits of puncture resistance and low rolling resistance.
Another debate is between clincher and tubular tires. Clincher’s clinch the side of the rim and the tube is separate. A tubular tire is glued to the rim and the tub is sewn inside of the tire. Both style of tires comes in various widths, puncture and rolling resistance as described above.
Ease of Installation/Repair between clincher and tubulars. For years, I assumed that clinchers where easier to install and change than tubulars. After switching to tubulars for my race wheels I found it easy to install. However, I haven’t had to change a tire in a race situation yet so I can’t speak in that regards. It is recommended that during a race that you carry a razor blade to speed the process in removing the old tire. I have personally found the tubular tires to be more comfortable to ride than the clinchers.
I would recommend different tires training verses races. Ideally put tires on the bike based on road conditions for both training and races. If you have rough roads with lots of debris, puncture resistant tires would be recommended and if on smooth roads switch to rolling resistant tires.